There are two categories of sword, Short and Long. Long Swords have less handling, but higher damage and can be destructive against powerful enemies such as Goons and Demolishers. Short Swords compromise in the other direction with increased handling and decreased damage.
In real life, Swords have various purposes. In general, they are used as weapons for cutting and thrusting.
The European Longsword and Bastard Sword was used during the late Medieval and Renaissance periods and was characterized for having a cruciform hilt with a grip for two-handed usage and a straight double-edge blade.
The Katana was a traditional Japanese sword used by the Samurai of feudal Japan and was characterized by its curved, slender, single-edged blade with a circular or squared guard and long grip for two-handed usage.
The Khopesh was a Egyptian sickle-like sword used by the New Kingdom of Egypt and was evolved from battle axes.
Currently, there are no new variants for the Sword in The Following.
In real life, the Bastard Sword and the Long Sword in-game are actually the same weapon, however there is a difference between the two. The Bastard Sword has a shorter blade and can be used for one-handed use and with a shield, whereas the Long Sword is the opposite; it has a longer blade and is more for two-handed use.
Oddly, the weapon models in-game are about the same size as each other. This could've been a mistake or an oversight.